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Levensverwachting of ouderdom

"Hoe lang leeft een pinguïn?"    "Hoe oud wordt hij?"
"Wat is zijn levensverwachting?"

Het is niet eenvoudig om dergelijke vragen te beantwoorden. Onderzoek ernaar is heel tijds- en arbeidsintensief: men moet duizenden pinguïns controleren. Ze moeten geringd en gevolgd worden gedurende vele jaren. Daar vele kuikens reeds tijdens hun eerste levensjaar overlijden, blijft het een gok om de gemiddelde leeftijd van een pinguïn te bepalen.

Eerst en vooral wil ik Barry Benefield, pingofiel [zijn woord voor penguin lover], woonachtig in Oklahoma, advocaat voor armen en indianen en lid van de Yahoo club Penguin Paradise bedanken, die me zijn resultaten op deze vraag toestuurde.

Vooraleer enkele specifieke waarden te geven, zou ik enkele algemene opmerkingen willen maken. Daar ik hier werk met citaten, die beschermd zijn door auteursrecht, is het grootste deel van deze tekst in het Engels.

"The average lifespan of penguins is probably 15 to 20 years. Some individuals live considerably longer (Sparks and Soper, 1987)."
(Bron: Longevity and causes of death : Seaworld)

"Penguins in captivity will live longer than penguins in the wild since they are fed nutrionally balanced meals and do not have to contend with predators. Generally, penguins will live from 15 to 20 years. A female Humboldt penguin in my study group (in captivity) lived to 17 years."
(Bron: Kevin Welch)

"How long do penguins live? In the wild there haven't been any reliable long term studies of individual penguins that can tell how long they live. The only such study was carried out in the 1940's and 50's by Lance Richdale in New Zealand. He monitored a population of Yellow-eyed penguins over a 15 year period. Certainly there were some chicks that he saw hatch that survived through most of the study; so it is reasonable to put the lifespan of Yellow-eyed penguins at 15 years or more. The only other information comes from studies on captive birds. Zoos and aquaria often know how old their birds are when they die. However, the common causes of death in captivity (Avian Malaria and Aspergillosis) are not particularly prevalent in the wild so the experiences with captive birds are probably under-estimates. On the other hand the captive birds will not suffer starvation if fish stocks go down suddenly and they have no predators (such as leopard seals and killer whales) to kill them. Anyway, zoos reckon birds live 10 to 20 years depending on species, with the larger species generally being longer lived."
(Bron: Pete and Barbara's penguin page FAQ's)

"The oldest known penguins are about 20 years old. Most penguins don't get that old however. Less than half of all chicks live through their first year of life and about 90% of the adult penguins live from one year to the next. The average age of a penguin that shows up at Palmer to breed is probably around 6 or 7 years old."
Bron: Antwoord op "Penguin's life span" door John Carlson, Research Assistant, Dr. Fraser's Team,
Palmer Station, Antarctica, Sat, 15 Feb 1997, NASA)

In de tabbladen wil ik proberen om voor zoveel mogelijk soorten de gemiddelde leeftijd te geven.

volgend hoofdstuk: Geslachtsbepaling

Aptenodytes of grote pinguïns

Elke tabel vermeld ook de bron, die een link vormt met het volledige citaat onderaan.
Deze citaten zijn grotendeels in het Engels, om zo correct mogelijk te blijven.
Bovendien zijn deze beschermd door auteursrechten, en mag ik ze enkel gebruiken met exacte woordweergave en bronvermelding.


Aptenodytes - grootste pinguïns
Soort Gem. leeftijd Bron Commentaar
Keizerspinguïn 20 jaar Penguins around the world NASA: oudste was 50 jaar.
Koningspinguïn 10 - 20 jaar Falklands Conservation -

Bronnen

  1. "Emperor penguins can mate when they are 4 years old and can live to be 20 years of age."
    (Bron: Penguins around the world)



  2. "If a penguin can survive infancy and its first years of life, it has a pretty good chance of living a fairly long life. Many penguin biologists have banded thousands and thousands of penguins and then followed which ones come to the colonies year after year. This is how we can guess at the average age of a penguin. The oldest known Adelie penguin living in the wild was 20 years old, and the big Emperor Penguins might live to as long as 50 years. If an Adelie penguins begins to breed early, say at 3 or 4 years of age, it is less likely to live to be 15 or 20 years old than if it waits until it is 7 or 8 years old to breed for the first time."
    (Bron: Antwoord op "Antarctic penguin's life expectancy" door Carol Vleck, Research Assistant, Dr. Fraser's Team, Palmer Station, Antarctica, Fri, 7 Feb 1997, NASA)



  3. "It is difficult to find the right answers as there is no local detailed studies of Penguins demography in the Falklands. To estimate lifespan you have to determine survival rate of birds. The only known way to do so was by ringing birds. However, this practise has been abandoned for penguins as rings affect their own survival. From what has been published in studies around the world of penguins, your figures are not far off the mark:
    King Penguin: 10 to 20 years
    Gentoo: 4 to 7 years only
    Macaroni: 8 to 15 years
    Rockhopper: 6 to 10 years
    Magellanic: 7 to 16 years."
    (Bron: Nic Huin (thanks) van Falklands Conservation in antwoord op mijn email aan hem)



volgend hoofdstuk: Geslachtsbepaling

Pygoscelis of borstelstaartpinguïns

Elke tabel vermeld ook de bron, die een link vormt met het volledige citaat onderaan.
Deze citaten zijn grotendeels in het Engels, om zo correct mogelijk te blijven.
Bovendien zijn deze beschermd door auteursrechten, en mag ik ze enkel gebruiken met exacte woordweergave en bronvermelding.


Pygoscelis - borstelstaart pinguïns
Soort Gem. leeftijd Bron Commentaar
Adeliepinguïn oudste geregistreerd is 20 jaar NASA -
11 jaar of ouder Penguin Biology -
Ezelspinguïn 15 tot 20 jaar Animal Diversity Web -
15 jaar Welt der Pinguine -
4 - 7 jaar Falklands Conservation -
Keelbandpinguïn - - -

Bronnen

  1. "If a penguin can survive infancy and its first years of life, it has a pretty good chance of living a fairly long life. Many penguin biologists have banded thousands and thousands of penguins and then followed which ones come to the colonies year after year. This is how we can guess at the average age of a penguin. The oldest known Adelie penguin living in the wild was 20 years old, and the big Emperor Penguins might live to as long as 50 years. If an Adelie penguins begins to breed early, say at 3 or 4 years of age, it is less likely to live to be 15 or 20 years old than if it waits until it is 7 or 8 years old to breed for the first time."
    (Bron: Antwoord op "Antarctic penguin's life expectancy" door Carol Vleck, Research Assistant, Dr. Fraser's Team, Palmer Station, Antarctica, Fri, 7 Feb 1997, NASA)



  2. "Richsdale's (1957) study of the yellow-eyed penguin covered 16 breeding seasons and reported no change in mortality rates for penguins between 2 and 16 years;...
    For the Adelie penguin Ainley and de Master (1980) analyzed recoveries from more than 10000 chicks banded over 8 years at Ross Island, Antarctica. They reported that, for breeding birds, mortality decreased from 3 or 4 until 11 years or older. Among mature birds there was some nonbreeding, especially among males, and for those nonbreeders mortality was lower than for breeders, the difference being attributed to reduced risk of exposure to predation by leopard seals lurking at the seaward edge of the colony. Ainley et al. (1983) reanalyzed much of the same data and apparently repudiated many of the earlier conclusions regarding changes in mortality with age. While accepting that breeding imposes an added risk to survival, their definitive model assumes annual mortality is constant at 10,6 % from age 2 on.
    For the royal penguin, Carrick (1972) reported that 5- to 11-year old breeders experienced an annual mortality of 20 % compared with 17 % for the nonbreeders. "

    (Bron: p.79 in het boek "Penguin biology", geschreven door Lloyd S. Davis en John T. Darby)



  3. "Gentoo: Their average lifespan is from 15 to 20 years."
    (Bron: Animal Diversity Web, gebaseerd op het boek "Penguins" van Roger Tory Peterson, 1979)



  4. "...Eselspinguin. In der freie Natur werden die Tiere ungefähr 15 Jahre alt."

    Translated: "...Gentoo. In the wild these animals reach an age of about 15 years."
    (Bron: p.52 van het boek "Die Welt der Pinguine", geschreven door Prof. Culik en Prof. Wilson)



  5. "It is difficult to find the right answers as there is no local detailed studies of Penguins demography in the Falklands. To estimate lifespan you have to determine survival rate of birds. The only known way to do so was by ringing birds. However, this practise has been abandoned for penguins as rings affect their own survival. From what has been published in studies around the world of penguins, your figures are not far off the mark:
    King Penguin: 10 to 20 years
    Gentoo: 4 to 7 years only
    Macaroni: 8 to 15 years
    Rockhopper: 6 to 10 years
    Magellanic: 7 to 16 years."
    (Bron: Nic Huin (thanks) van Falklands Conservation in antwoord op mijn email aan hem)



volgend hoofdstuk: Geslachtsbepaling

Spheniscus of gestreepte pinguïns

Elke tabel vermeld ook de bron, die een link vormt met het volledige citaat onderaan.
Deze citaten zijn grotendeels in het Engels, om zo correct mogelijk te blijven.
Bovendien zijn deze beschermd door auteursrechten, en mag ik ze enkel gebruiken met exacte woordweergave en bronvermelding.


Spheniscus - gestreepte pinguïns
Soort Gem. leeftijd Bron Commentaar
Afrikaanse pinguïn Gemiddeld 10-11 jaar, max. 24 jaar Phil Hockey In de Zoo van Rotterdam, is er één 34 jaar (Juli 2000)
10 - 12 jaar Simonstown records van 24 jaar oud
Humboldtpinguïn - Kevin Welch In gevangenschap 17 jaar
Bij benadering 20 jaar in het wild Woodland ParkZoo tot 30 jaar in zoos
12 jaar Roger Williams ParkZoo tot 20 jaar in gevangenschap
Magellanpinguïn 7 - 16 jaar Falklands Conservation -
Galapagospinguïn - Dee Boersma meer dan 10 jaar

Bronnen

  1. "African Lifespan: average 10-11 years, maximum 24 years."
    (Bron: p.6 of the book "The African penguin - a natural history" geschreven door Phil Hockey)



  2. "African penguins live an average of 10 to 11 years but sometimes reach as much as 24 years."
    (Bron: Simonstown)



  3. "Penguins in captivity will live longer than penguins in the wild since they are fed nutrionally balanced meals and do not have to contend with predators. Generally, penguins will live from 15 to 20 years. A female Humboldt penguin in my study group (in captivity) lived to 17 years."
    (Bron: Kevin Welch)



  4. "Humboldt: Life Span Approximately 20 years in the wild; up to 30 years at zoos."
    (Bron: Woodland Park Zoo)



  5. "Humboldt : How long? The lifespan of penguins is 12 years (up to 20 years in captivity). "
    (Bron: Roger Williams Park Zoo)



  6. "It is difficult to find the right answers as there is no local detailed studies of Penguins demography in the Falklands. To estimate lifespan you have to determine survival rate of birds. The only known way to do so was by ringing birds. However, this practise has been abandoned for penguins as rings affect their own survival. From what has been published in studies around the world of penguins, your figures are not far off the mark:
    King Penguin: 10 to 20 years
    Gentoo: 4 to 7 years only
    Macaroni: 8 to 15 years
    Rockhopper: 6 to 10 years
    Magellanic: 7 to 16 years."
    (Bron: Nic Huin (thanks) van Falklands Conservation in antwoord op mijn email aan hem)



  7. "Galapagos : I know of one wild bird that was more than 10 years of age. He was banded in the 1960's and I found him 11 years later."
    (Bron: Antwoord van Dee Boersma op mijn E-mail)

volgend hoofdstuk: Geslachtsbepaling

Eudyptes of kuifpinguïns

Elke tabel vermeld ook de bron, die een link vormt met het volledige citaat onderaan.
Deze citaten zijn grotendeels in het Engels, om zo correct mogelijk te blijven.
Bovendien zijn deze beschermd door auteursrechten, en mag ik ze enkel gebruiken met exacte woordweergave en bronvermelding.


Eudyptes - kuifpinguïns
Soort Gem. leeftijd Bron Commentaar
Macaronipinguïn 8 - 15 jaar Falklands Conservation -
Dikbek- of
Fjordlandpinguïn
- - -
Grote kuifpinguïn - - -
Snares kuifpinguïn - - -
Schlegelpinguïn 5 to 11 jaar Penguin Biology -
Rotsspringer 10 jaar Animal Diversity Web -
6 - 10 jaar Falklands Conservation -

Bronnen

  1. "It is difficult to find the right answers as there is no local detailed studies of Penguins demography in the Falklands. To estimate lifespan you have to determine survival rate of birds. The only known way to do so was by ringing birds. However, this practise has been abandoned for penguins as rings affect their own survival. From what has been published in studies around the world of penguins, your figures are not far off the mark:
    King Penguin: 10 to 20 years
    Gentoo: 4 to 7 years only
    Macaroni: 8 to 15 years
    Rockhopper: 6 to 10 years
    Magellanic: 7 to 16 years."
    (Bron: Nic Huin (thanks) van Falklands Conservation in antwoord op mijn email aan hem)



  2. "The average lifespan of a Rockhopper Penguin is 10 years."
    (Bron: Animal Diversity Web)



  3. "Richsdale's (1957) study of the yellow-eyed penguin covered 16 breeding seasons and reported no change in mortality rates for penguins between 2 and 16 years;...
    For the Adelie penguin Ainley and de Master (1980) analyzed recoveries from more than 10000 chicks banded over 8 years at Ross Island, Antarctica. They reported that, for breeding birds, mortality decreased from 3 or 4 until 11 years or older. Among mature birds there was some nonbreeding, especially among males, and for those nonbreeders mortality was lower than for breeders, the difference being attributed to reduced risk of exposure to predation by leopard seals lurking at the seaward edge of the colony. Ainley et al. (1983) reanalyzed much of the same data and apparently repudiated many of the earlier conclusions regarding changes in mortality with age. While accepting that breeding imposes an added risk to survival, their definitive model assumes annual mortality is constant at 10,6 % from age 2 on.
    For the royal penguin, Carrick (1972) reported that 5- to 11-year old breeders experienced an annual mortality of 20 % compared with 17 % for the nonbreeders. "

    (Bron: p.79 in het boek "Penguin biology", geschreven door Lloyd S. Davis en John T. Darby)



volgend hoofdstuk: Geslachtsbepaling

Eudyptula of dwergpinguïns

Elke tabel vermeld ook de bron, die een link vormt met het volledige citaat onderaan.
Deze citaten zijn grotendeels in het Engels, om zo correct mogelijk te blijven.
Bovendien zijn deze beschermd door auteursrechten, en mag ik ze enkel gebruiken met exacte woordweergave en bronvermelding.


Eudyptula - kleine pinguïns
Soort Gem. leeftijd Bron Commentaar
Dwergpinguïn Enkelingen kunnen tot 25 jaar oud worden. Dave Houston -
7 jaar Gabo Count -
7 jaar Phillip Island Nature Park Oudste hier is 25 jaar

Bronnen

  1. "Blue penguins usually breed for the first time at 2-3 years of age. Long term partnerships are the norm, but divorce is not uncommon. There is a high rate of juvenile mortality, but individuals can reach up to 25 years of age."
    (Bron: Dave Houston)



  2. "Fairy penguins live on average for 7 years, and some retain the same mate for life."
    (Bron: Gabo count, gebaseerd op het boek "Little Penguin: Fairy Penguins in Australia" van Colin Stahel en Rosemary Gales, New South Wales University Press, 1987)



  3. "The average age a Little Penguin lives is said to be 7 years. However we have one banded Little Penguin in our colony that is now 25 years old."
    (Bron: Antwoord van Phillip Island Nature Park op mijn e-mail)



volgend hoofdstuk: Geslachtsbepaling

Megadyptes of geeloogpinguïns

Elke tabel vermeld ook de bron, die een link vormt met het volledige citaat onderaan.
Deze citaten zijn grotendeels in het Engels, om zo correct mogelijk te blijven.
Bovendien zijn deze beschermd door auteursrechten, en mag ik ze enkel gebruiken met exacte woordweergave en bronvermelding.


Megadyptes - geeloogpinguïn
Soort Gem. leeftijd Bron Commentaar
Geeloogpinguïn tot 24 jaar Dave Houston -
tussen 2 en 16 jaar Penguin Biology -

Bronnen

  1. "First breeding occurs at 3-4 years of age and long term partnerships are formed. Yellow-eyed penguins may live for up to 24 years."
    (Bron: Dave Houston)



  2. "Richsdale's (1957) study of the yellow-eyed penguin covered 16 breeding seasons and reported no change in mortality rates for penguins between 2 and 16 years;...
    For the Adelie penguin Ainley and de Master (1980) analyzed recoveries from more than 10000 chicks banded over 8 years at Ross Island, Antarctica. They reported that, for breeding birds, mortality decreased from 3 or 4 until 11 years or older. Among mature birds there was some nonbreeding, especially among males, and for those nonbreeders mortality was lower than for breeders, the difference being attributed to reduced risk of exposure to predation by leopard seals lurking at the seaward edge of the colony. Ainley et al. (1983) reanalyzed much of the same data and apparently repudiated many of the earlier conclusions regarding changes in mortality with age. While accepting that breeding imposes an added risk to survival, their definitive model assumes annual mortality is constant at 10,6 % from age 2 on.
    For the royal penguin, Carrick (1972) reported that 5- to 11-year old breeders experienced an annual mortality of 20 % compared with 17 % for the nonbreeders. "

    (Bron: p.79 in het boek "Penguin biology", geschreven door Lloyd S. Davis en John T. Darby)



volgend hoofdstuk: Geslachtsbepaling
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