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Enemies and status of threat: endangered, vulnerable, or "safe"?

Before naming several enemies, I will try to enumerate the population numbers and which species is considered as endangered, vulnerable or stable.
It's obvious that counting penguins isn't that simple but absolutely necessary to know which species is decreasing in number and/or needs protection. Counting those species that breed in the open air, like adélie penguins, can be done directly or by photographing them from a plane. For hole-breeders, like the 4 Spheniscus species, or those that breed between vegetation and trees, like yellow-eyed or fiordland penguins, it is a lot more difficult and then estimated numbers are given.
While penguins only come ashore for breeding and molting, population is given in number of breeding pairs. They count nests (pairs), not single penguins.

Status for all species

This list is based on the most recent values, given by The world conservation Union (IUCN) in their 2007 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
Criteria:
  • Threatened:
    • CR: critically endangered
    • EN: endangered
    • VU = vulnerable
  • Lower risk:
    • cd: conservation dependent
    • nt: near threatened
    • lc: least concern
All criteria are extensive explained under criteria
Latin or scientific English Population Status
A
p
t
e
n
o
d
y
t
e
s
Aptenodytes forsteri Emperor penguin estimated 170.000 breeding pairs least concern (lc)
Aptenodytes patagonicus King penguin estimated 1 million breeding pairs least concern (lc)
P
y
g
o
s
c
e
l
i
s
Pygoscelis adeliae Adélie penguin more than 2,5 million breeding pairs least concern (lc)
Pygoscelis antarctica Chinstrap penguin 4 million breeding pairs least concern (lc)
Pygoscelis papua Gentoo penguin around 314.000 breeding pairs Lower risk/near threatened, 2008 IUCN
E
u
d
y
p
t
e
s
Eudyptes sclateri Erect-crested penguin estimated 28.000 breeding pairs ENDANGERED, population decreasing,
2008 IUCN Red List
Eudyptes robustus Snares crested penguin estimated 23.250 breeding pairs (counted in October 2000 by Dave Houston). vulnerable, population stable, IUCN
Eudyptes pachyrhynchus Fiordland penguin 2500 à 3000 breeding pairs vulnerable, population decreasing, IUCN
Eudyptes chrysocome Rockhopper Southern: more than 1 million breeding pairs

Northern rockhopper: 55 till 80 thousand breeding pairs
- Southern rockhopper: vulnerable, population decreasing, IUCN
- Northern rockhopper (Eudyptes moseleyi): ENDANGERED,
IUCN Red List 2008
Eudyptes chrysolophus Macaroni penguin estimated 9 million breeding pairs vulnerable, population decreasing, IUCN
Eudyptes schlegeli Royal penguin very locally, thus vulnerable vulnerable, population stable, 2008 IUCN
S
p
h
e
n
i
s
c
u
s
Spheniscus demersus African or blackfooted penguin 90 000 breeding pairs vulnerable, population decreasing, IUCN
Spheniscus humboldti Humboldt penguin about 3 300 birds vulnerable, population decreasing, IUCN
Spheniscus magellanicus Magellanic penguin 1,3 million breeding pairs lower risk/near threatened, population decreasing, 2008 IUCN
Spheniscus mendiculus Galápagos penguin about 1200 birds, population decreasing ENDANGERED,
IUCN Red List 2008
  Megadyptes antipodes Yellow-eyed penguin 1500 breeding pairs ENDANGERED,
IUCN Red List 2008
  Eudyptula minor

Eudyptula albosignata
Little penguin

whiteflippered little penguin
trend decreasing Lower risk/near threatened (nt)

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